Friday, June 5, 2015

Framework for organizational Quality

Two framework that have most impact on organizational quality worldwide are:
ISO 9000 certification
Malcolm Baldridge national quality award
Six sigma also provides a quality framework
There are several other national and international awards that also lays framework for Quality.
The philosophies of Deming, Juran and others provide much guidance and wisdom in the form of best practices to the world wide organizations, leading to the development of the numerous awards and certifications for recognizing effective application of TQ principles.

The awards and certification criteria provide framework for implementing and managing TQ in organizations.

Baldrige award : The criteria for performance excellence

Baldrige award criteria for performance excellence is designed to enhance the competitiveness through an aligned approach that finally result in :
–Delivery of ever improving value to customers, contributing market success
–Improvement of overall company performance and capabilities.
–Organizational and personal learning
The criteria consist of a set of categories, items and areas to address. The seven categories are :
–Leadership: How organization senior leader’s focus on customers, other stakeholders, empowerment, innovation and learning. How the organization  addresses its public and community responsibilities.
–Strategic Planning : How an organization develops strategic  objectives and action plans
–Customer and market focus.: How an organization determines requirements, preferences  and expectations of customers and markets
–Measurement, analysis and knowledge management: examines how firms selects, gathers, analyzes, manages and improves its data, information and knowledge assets.
–Human resources focus: how an organization’s work systems, employee learning, and motivation enable employees to develop and utilize their full potential in alignment with the organization's overall objectives and action plans.
–Process management: key aspects of organizational process management
–Business results: examines an organization’s performance  and improvements in the key business areas, -customer satisfaction, product and service performance , financial and market place performance
Baldrige award evaluation process evaluation critera
·        Study the Baldrige award evaluation ptocess and evaluation criteria.
·        This structured approach creates an effective TQ based framework in any company


ISO 9000

ISO 9000 defines quality system standards based on the premise that certain generic characteristics of management practices can be standardized, and that a well designed, well implemented and carefully managed quality system provides confidence that the outputs will meet customer expectations and requirements. The standards were created to meet five objectives:
–Achieve, maintain, and seek to continuously improve product quality including services in relationship to requirements
–Improve the quality of operations to continuously meet customer ‘s and stakeholders’ stated and implied needs
–Provide confidence to  internal management and other employees that  quality requirements are being fulfilled and that improvement is taking place
–Provide confidence to customers  and other stakeholders that quality requirements are being achieved in the delivered product
–Provide confidence that quality system requirements are fulfilled

See ISO 9000:2000 Quality management principles

What is Six Sigma?

Six Sigma (6 Sigma, 6σ, or 6s):
–A quality management philosophy
–A methodology that blends together many of the key elements of past quality initiatives
–A business philosophy of focusing on continuous improvement by understanding customers’ needs, analyzing business processes, and instituting proper measurement methods.
–A methodology that an organization uses to ensure that it is improving its key processes
–A statistical concept that measures a process in terms of defects
–A statistical concept that represents the amount of variation present in a process relative to customer requirements or specifications
 When a process is running at the 6s level, the variation is so small that the resulting products and services are 99.9997 % defect free
When a process is running at the 6s level, it is delivering only 3.4 defects per million opportunities (DPMO)
The Value of Six Sigma

Six Sigma Origins

The concept was originally formulated in 1986 by Bill Smith, a reliability engineer for Motorola Corporation, when he was investigating the number of repairs made in manufacturing related to the product failures in the field.
The company discovered that products with a high first pass yield (i.e. products that made it through the production process defect free the first time) rarely failed in actual use.
6s was heavily inspired by six preceding decades of quality improvement methodologies such as quality control, TQM, and Zero Defects.

Six Sigma’s Foundation

How is 6s (six sigma) different from previous quality programs?

–It emphasizes an increased focus on quality as defined by the customer.  This is directly addressed by the sigma score.
–It emphasizes more rigorous statistical methods.

–It emphasizes the prioritization of improvement projects and alignment of the organizations resources to support the key strategic initiatives.

The Six Sigma Methodologies

There are 2 basic methodologies introduced in Six Sigma organizations. They are known by their acronyms DMAIC and DMADV.
The DMAIC method involves five steps: Define Measure Analyze Improve Control
–It is used to improve the current capabilities of an existing process
–It is the most commonly used methodology of sigma improvement teams.
  The DMAIC method will be the focus of this class.
The DMADV method involves five steps: Define Measure Analyze Design Verify
–It is used to help create a process, product, or service to meet customer requirements .
–It is used when there is a need to complete a redesign because a process, product, or service is consistently incapable of meeting customer requirements.
–It is less frequently used.

–It is typically convened and staffed by senior managers.

The Six Sigma Body of Knowledge

  • Enterprise-Wide Deployment
  • Business Process Management
  • Project Management
  • Six Sigma Improvement Methodology and Tools – DMAIC
  • Lean Enterprise
  • Design for Six Sigma (DFSS)